Saturday, 19 October 2019

AIM Global Compensation Plan: Top 10 Cool Facts

It is a multilevel marketing company based in the Philippines that has grown quite popular there, as well as in many other locations. Many call the company AIM Global, but the actual name is Alliance In Motion. AIM Global does not manufacture their own products but has instead partnered with the Utah based Nature’s Way who makes exclusive products in the area of nutritional supplements just for AIM Global. They also have a partnership with a health and beauty manufacturer from Japan called AMS Life Science Co. Ltd.

AIM Global History
In 2006, 3 men who have had great success in network marketing decided they were ready to start a MLM company in their home country of the Philippines. These men had a fantastic idea in that they would partner with other companies to have exclusive products with the AIM Global name on them.

Over the years, these men had measured the good and bad of various compensation plans and vowed to develop a comp plan that all independent AIM Global representatives would love.

These men are:
•Eduardo Cabantog
•Francis Miguel
•and John Asperin

With fantastic products and an excellent
compensation plan, Alliance in Motion (AIM Global) has been growing substantially in the 12 years they have been in operation
Today, I am going to give you 10 cool facts on the AIM Global compensation plan.

#1: A Comp Plan Mixture

AIM Global’s founders took what they believed to be the best from several compensation plans and put them together. Basically, the system operates on a Binary plan but uses both Unilevel and Stairstep principles.

#2: Cost To Join

To start any business, you will have to invest. The cost to get started with AIM Global is actually quite minimal. It equates to approximately $300 to get a Global Business Package. You will get:

•5 – 24/7 single packs
•A Video presentation CD
•A Startup sales kit
•Registration forms
•An Alliance In Motion Global website
•And an Insurance and scholarship certificate

#3: Scholarships For Distributors

AIM Global also offers distributors a college scholarship program. So while you are managing your business, you can also get part or all your college tuition paid for.

#4: Retail Profits

You can make from 25 – 30% retail profits from product sales.

#5: Direct Sponsoring

Every time you directly sponsor a person, you will automatically earn approximately $9.25 and since you are building a binary (left and right), this can add up quickly.

#6: Match Sale Bonus

And, for every person you referred and they purchase that Global Business Package, you also earn a Match Sale Bonus of approximately $28. So essentially, each person you sponsor gives you approximately $37 immediately.
And when your right and left sides match, you get another Match Sale Bonus.

#7: Uni-Level Bonus

Even if you are on vacation and you have not recruited, this AIM Global bonus ensures you are still getting some pay. For each person in your direct downline who buys products, you get a bonus…

•1 level – you get 10%
•2 through 10 levels – you get 5%

#8: Stairstep Bonus

AIM Global also instituted a promotion system. And as you rise in levels, you get a bonus off all of your group sales. What is great is, you cannot and will not be demoted. At distributor level, there is no group sales bonus, but…
Silver executive – 10% group sales bonus
Gold executive – 20% group sales bonus
and Global Ambassador – 30% group sales bonus

#9: Royalty Income

When one of your downline becomes a Global Ambassador and you are at Global Ambassador, they “break-a-way,” but you will still receive Royalties from their product sales and all those under them. It amounts to 2% which can be huge.

#10: Global Profit Sharing

AIM Global also has a Global Profit Sharing for all Global Ambassadors who are at 2000 points. A certain amount of company profits will be split between all.

Final Thoughts

There are many people who have found solid financial freedom as AIM Global business owners.
The company does also have travel incentives for top performers, and the products they offer are of the utmost quality.
If you are considering a MLM business, Alliance In Motion may be an excellent choice.
If you have any questions or comments, please post them below.

Thank you.

By Greg Boudonck

•culled from

Friday, 18 October 2019

Virgin Islands Music

In the Caribbean, African rhythms were fused with European elements creating new Creole musical forms that continue to develop into unique musical expressions today.

In the Virgin Islands you can hear Caribbean rhythms, intoxicating steel drums, high-energy dance music, spiritual hymns, soca, reggae, blues, salsa, meringue, jazz, classical and an assortment of other music genres. While a variety of music types are played in the Virgin Islands, it is calypso, soca, reggae and steel pan beats that are the sounds of the Caribbean must often heard.


Historically, calypso music can be traced to the days of slavery. It was a means of communication and a vent to the strains of oppression. Calypso has it’s roots on the island of Trinidad. Present in Trinidad during French and Spanish occupation, calypso did not take root until English occupation. With English as the common language Calypso could now be understood by the entire population. Calypsonians are respected as news carriers and what they sing is considered to be truthful interpretations. Calypso is most famously known for expressing political commentary through satire and sarcasm. Today Calypso has evolved into two types, the traditional informative Calypso and a new dance hall type of calypso music .

Soca Music

Add some soul to Calypso and you have Soca. The origin of the music is Trinidad and Tobago. The lyrics are used to express political and social commentary.


Reggae music is an offshoot of ska music. The order of creation is ska then rock-steady then reggae. Famous reggae artists like Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer began their careers as ska musicians. Ska music started as dance music. Audiences wanted a more steady beat, and the music evolved into the more mellow reggae of today. Reggae lyrics usually have an emphasis on redemption. Reggae music has traveled and become popular across the world.

Other Caribbean music types that can be heard in the Virgin Islands


Is a musical form native to the British Virgin Islands. It is characterized by a variety of instruments and is sometimes called a scratch band.


Is a high energy music characteristic of islands such as Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

Rock Steady

Is the precursor of reggae. It is slower, heavier and more vocal.


Is a Latin dance music developed in Puerto Rican and Cuban communities in New York.


Is a dance music from the French Antilles and is played in both slow and fast beats.

Popular Musical Events in the Virgin Islands

Various music venues occur throughout the year. During Carnival there are often Latin venues, Calypso Shows, Steel Pan performances and other musical showcases. Blues festivals, jazz concerts, reggae concerts, steel pan shows, zouk music and more are sponsored at hotels, at restaurants and at local events.

•culled from

Iranian Culture and Traditions

From prehistoric to modern Islamic times, the people of Persia have intrigued and help develop the greater consciousness of our world as a whole.



Located in western Asia, the Islamic Republic of Iran is the second largest country in the Middle East. It was historically the site of some of the world's oldest civilizations . Rich with history and diversity, the name “ Iran" is often interchanged with " Persia ". This is because the majority of the population in modern day Iran are part of the Persian ethnicity, which is mainly set apart through their language. There are many other languages spoken in Iran as well, including Gilaki, Mazandarani, and Azerbaijani. Another reason why the terms Iran and Persia are interchanged so frequently is because of the powerful kingdoms and empires of ancient Persia that dominated the region, which was centered within what would eventually become the modern-day country of Iran.

Cultural Significance

As one of the oldest civilizations in the world, Iranians and Persians have contributed much to the historical timeline of mankind. They had a huge hand in developing the textile industry, which commenced in the region as early as the Neolithic Era. In modern times, Iranian craftspeople are quite famous for their beautiful, and elaborately designed, Persian rugs and carpets. Iranians were also said to have given the world such delicacies as ice cream, cookies, and wine. Private banking was first developed in Persia over 2,000 years ago, as were standardized weights, money, and measures. In 537 BC, Cyrus the Great created a written declaration of human rights. Following him, King Darius I had a far-reaching human rights charter written only shortly thereafter. These are among the earliest human rights documents to be discovered to date.


With such a long history, the architecture of Iran has changed drastically over the many different historical eras and ruling Iranian dynasties. Considered unique to their culture, the architecture of Iran can broadly be divided into two groups:

Zoroastrian (or Pre-Islamic) and Islamic. Some of the most famous Zoroastrian buildings included the Persepolis, which was burned down by Alexander the Great, the Naqsh-e Rustam, an ancient necropolis with elaborate rock reliefs etched into the cliff-face dating as far back at 1000 BC, and the ancient cities of Pasargadae and Hatra. Notable Islamic buildings include the Naqshe Jahan Square, the Goharshad Mosque, and the Jamkaran Mosque. Like many other cultures, many of Iran's traditional buildings had cosmic themes, as well natural and calligraphy-ornamented motifs.


Iranian cuisine is highly varied, with its influences being sourced from those of many other great culinary traditions, including those of Greece,Turkey, Azerbaijan, and India. Due to ancient trading routes, Iranians had access to such exotic ingredients as mint, basil, sesame, and pistachios well before they had the means to cultivate them. Nowadays, Iranian staple foods are rice and bread dishes, and typical spices include saffron, cinnamon, and parsley. Most meals are a balance of different food dishes. Some typical Persian dishes are chelow kabab (their national dish, consisting of aromatic rice with roasted meat), kuku (a vegetable soufflé), and khoresh, a thick stew served over rice. Unlike many Western countries, the largest meal of the day takes place in the early afternoon.

By Iris Ho

•culled from

Largest Ethnic Groups In Iran

The Persian people are the largest ethnic group in modern day Iran.


Iran Demographics

Iran is a country at the juncture of Western Asia and the Middle East. Iran borders seven other countries, including Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and Turkey. It also borders the Gulf of Oman, the Caspian Sea, and the Persian Gulf. The country was known as Persia until 1935.

Iran is a multi-ethnic nation with different ethnic groups that includes Persians, Kurds, Lurs, Arabs, Baluchs, Turkmen and Turkic tribes. The country enjoys a mix of cultures borrowed from far and wide. The many languages spoken in Iran have similarities to European and Asian languages. Persian is the largest ethnic group in Iran. The ethnic group makes up more than half of the nation’s population. Due to Persian dominance, the group’s culture has had a significant impact on other cultures in the country. Iran has taken measures to ensure ethnic diversity is maintained. The constitution guarantees the rights of Ethnic minority groups in Iran. According to the law, the minority groups have equal rights with the majority group.


Persians and their culture dominate the Iranian population. They are estimated to make up 61% of the population. They occupy major urban areas such as Tehran, Esfahan, Mashhad, Yazd and Shiraz. The official language in Iran is Persian also known as Farsi. It is the first language for Persians, and ethnic minorities use it as a second language. Persians are known to have a rich cultural heritage. Their music, art, and poetry are ranked the best in Iran. Persians hold a majority of government positions. As a result, they influence important government decisions. Most Persians are Shia Muslims, the predominant religious group in Iran.


Azerbaijanis, also known as Azeris, are the second largest ethnic group in Iran, making up an estimated 16% of the total population. They are a Turkic-speaking community found in northwestern Iran close to the border with Azerbaijan. The Azeri language is almost similar to the Turkish language spoken in Turkey. Azeri people have a great deal in common with Persians. Their lifestyles are almost similar. In the cities, Azerbaijani and Persians have considerably intermarried. These people are more integrated into the Iranian society than other ethnic minorities. Azerbaijanis, just as with most Persians, are predominately Shia Muslims.


Kurds are ranked as the third largest ethnic group in Iran. They make up approximately 10% of the population. They occupy both rural and urban areas. Rural Kurds are nomadic pastoralists. The majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslims.


Lurs form the fourth largest ethnic group in Iran. They constitute 6%of the total population. The majority of the Lurs are pastoral nomads. Lurs who reside in rural areas are governed by tribal elders. They are considered among the fiercest tribe in Iran. Lurs acquired a bad reputation for preying on non-Lur villages.


Arabs are a smaller minority group in Iran at an estimated 2% of the population. They primarily occupy oil rich regions in Iran. Ethnic Arabs complain of discrimination, and neglect by the Iranian government. Ethnic conflicts involving Arabs and government agencies have broken out in recent years.

Inter-Ethnic Relations

Iran is a diverse nation with many ethnic groups living therein. The largest ethnic group, Persian, has considerable control over the country. Ethnic minorities such as Kurds, Azeris, Lurs, and Arabs are discriminated against by the Iranian government. They live in under-developed areas and do not have access to proper education and healthcare. Due to the unequal treatment of the majority ethnic group and the minority groups, ethnic unrest is common in Iran.

Largest Ethnic Groups In Iran

Rank Ethnic Group Share of Population in Contemporary Iran

1 Persian 61%
2 Azerbaijani 16%
3 Kurdish 10%
4 Luri (Lors) 6%
5 Turkmen and Other Turkic Peoples 2%
6 Arab 2%
7 Balochi 2%
Other Groups 1%

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culled from

Thursday, 17 October 2019

The Culture Of Iran

Iranian culture has influenced cultures and peoples in different parts of the world including Europe, East Asia, and South Asia.



The Western Asian country of Iran has one of the oldest and richest cultures in the world. Iranian culture has influenced cultures and peoples in different parts of the world including Europe, East Asia, and South Asia.

6. Ethnicity, Language, and Religion in Iran

Today, Iran is home to a population of around 83,024,745 individuals. Persian, Kurd, Balochi, Arab, Turkmen, Azeri, and Turkic tribes are the major ethnic groups residing in the country. Persian is Iran’s official language. Other ethnic groups usually speak their respective languages at home. The vast majority of Iran’s population (99.4%) practice Islam. Of this population, 90-95% are Sunni Muslims and the rest are Shia Muslims.

5. Iranian Cuisine

The cuisine of Iran is influenced by the cuisines of its indigenous ethnic groups as well as that of its neighbors. The Persian, Turkish, Levantine, Greek, Central Asian, and other cuisines have all contributed to the development and evolution of Iranian cuisine. Bread in different forms (like nan and hamir) and rice are the staples of the cuisine. These are consumed with a variety of foods like meats and vegetables. Flavorings of saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, parsley, and turmeric are often added to Iranian dishes. Fruits like apricots, raisins, prunes, pomegranates, and plums are widely consumed in the country. Yogurt and other dairy products are also often used. Baklava is one of the most popular sweet dishes. It is made of almonds, cardamom, and egg yolks, etc. A drink made from orange peel, rose water, and orange juice boiled in sugar syrup is a non-alcoholic dessert drink of Iran. Tea is the most popular beverage consumed in the country.

4. Literature and the Arts in Iran

The region that is now Iran was the seat of Persian culture. Literature in the Persian language comprises of both oral compositions and written texts and dominates the literary scene in modern-day Iran. The other ethnic groups residing in the country like the Kurds and Azerbaijanis have their distinct literary traditions. Iranian literature is thus a collection of the oral and literary works of all people. Poetry has been one of the most important forms of expression of emotions and thoughts in Iranian society since ages. Iranian poets are internationally renowned for moving poetry which has been used to express love and resentment, anger and frustration, and other emotions related to matters of personal or national interests. The art of storytelling has also been prevalent in Iran since ancient times. Novels, essays, stories, etc., are part of modern day literature produced in the country.
Iran has one of the world’s richest art heritages that encompass numerous disciplines like weaving, painting, calligraphy, metalworking, pottery, architecture, etc. Iran is renowned for its Persian carpets. It is the second most important export product in the country after oil. The finest of these hand knotted carpets take years to complete. Miniature Iranian paintings illustrate epics and classic stories that are highly treasured across the world.

3. Performing Arts in Iran

Iranian music has influenced and shaped Turkish and Arabic music to a great extent. It includes various genres ranging from folk to classical and contemporary music. The country’s music scene dates back thousands of years. Some of the earliest complex musical instruments trace their origin to what is now Iranian territory. Gold, copper, and silver trumpets were used to play music in the region sometime between 2200 and 1750 BCE. Folk songs in Iran are based on a variety of themes like religious, social, or historical. There are folk songs that are performed on only special occasions like harvests and weddings. Today, the Iranian youth, especially those living in the urban area, also listen to pop, jazz, rock, and hip hop. Dances in Iran vary regionally and the different ethnic groups inhabiting the country have their own dance styles. The dances range from energetic folk dances to refined court dances.

2. Sports in Iran

The Irani people play a wide range of both traditional and popular sports. Freestyle wrestling has traditionally been regarded as the national sport of the nation. Some of the other traditional sports of Iran are bodybuilding, polo, and board games like chess. Football (soccer) is the most popular game in Iran and has the highest number of followers and spectators. The national football team of Iran has qualified five times for the FIFA World Cup. It has also been a three-time champion at the AFC Asian Cup and a four-time champion at the Asian Games. Some Iranian players now play in European leagues. Basketball, weightlifting, skiing, hiking and climbing, martial arts, volleyball, tennis, and futsal are the other games in which Iranians excel.

1. Life in the Iranian Society

Iranian society is guided by the teachings of Islam. Although women play a prominent role in Iranian households, their public presence is limited. However, over the years, Iranian women have received education at par with men. They do lag behind in the field of employment but the scenario is gradually improving. Public interaction of non-related members of the opposite sex is frowned upon in Iranian society. Members of the same sex can, however, meet and shower emotions and affection on each other. Hand-holding and close interactions among members of the same sex are accepted without any sexual connotation attached to it. Women are expected to dress modestly and cover their head and body with a chador.

Marriages in Iran are usually arranged by the family of the couple. However, love marriages are becoming increasingly common, especially in urban areas. A dowry is generally paid by the bride’s family to the groom. Marriage ceremonies are often preceded by a contract whereby the dowry requirements are specified. Marriages are lavish affairs with the ceremonies lasting for several days and involving many people. The bride moves in with the groom’s family and is expected to obey and honor her husband at all times. Polygamy is allowed as Iran is an Islamic country but is rare in the country. Marriages between cousins are common in Iran. Divorces are rare as social ties often keep the couple together despite differences. Upon divorce, children of marriage stay with the father after a certain age. Remarriage after divorce is allowed for both men and women.

Households in Iran tend to be of the extended nature although smaller family units may have their separate kitchens. Rearing children is the primary responsibility of the mother while the father is expected to discipline them. The eldest male member is usually the most respected member of the family. The male members are responsible for protecting the family honor by ensuring that the female members behave in an expected manner. Male children inherit twice that of female children.

By Oishimaya Sen Nag

•culled from

Wednesday, 16 October 2019

Religious Beliefs In Egypt

Egypt is a predominately Sunni Muslim country, with the largest religious minorities there being Coptic Orthodox Christianity and Shi'a Muslims.

Islam as the official state religion and Islamic law is the basis for legislative decisions in Egypt. One of the ways in which the government does not promote religious freedom is by not recognizing Muslim individuals who have converted to a different belief system. Additionally, the government must officially recognize a religion for it to be practiced freely. This official recognition is obtained by submitting a request to the Department of Religious Affairs. The department then determines if the proposed religions would cause a threat to national peace; the last time a religion was granted recognition was in 1990. If individuals are found practicing an unrecognized religion, they may be arrested, prosecuted, and punished.

The government only recognizes three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. This article takes a look at those religions and their relationship to Egyptian society.

Islam - 94.9%

Approximately 94.9% of the population of Egypt is Muslim. The majority of these individuals follow
Sunni Islam and a minority is made up of Mu’tazila, Shia Twelvers, and followers of Ismailism. Egypt is home to Al-Azhar University, the most important and oldest university of Islamic studies in the world. Islamic beliefs and practices shape all levels of Egyptian society and government.

Christianity - 5.1%

The Christian religion is thought to be represented by 5.1% of the population although some estimates put the percentage from as low as 3% to as high as 20%. The vast majority, 95%, of Christians in Egypt belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. These followers are referred to as Copts meaning they are of Coptic origin. It is the largest ethnic minority group in the country.

Other - <1% Judaism Although Judaism is a recognized religion in Egypt, its number of adherents is very low. Today, it is estimated that the number of Jews in the country is less than 40. Prior to 1950, it was estimated at somewhere between 70,000 and 85,000. In 1948, Israel was created which caused a massive out-migration of Egyptian Jews and after the Suez Crisis of 1956, thousands more were pushed out of the country and had their property confiscated. Unrecognized Religions A small minority of the population belong to several unrecognized religions including Baha’i Faith, Hinduism, Atheism, and Agnosticism. Those of the Baha’i faith are not able to register their religion on state identification papers which leave them without valid identification. The lack of identification makes it difficult to open bank accounts, start legal businesses, and register children for school. Recent court rulings have, however, allowed them to obtain identification by omitting their religion. Atheists and Agnostics live in fear of openly expressing their beliefs due to the risk of legal repercussions. Religious Tolerance Religious tolerance does not seem to be widely practiced throughout Egypt. Non-Muslim groups have experienced many instances of persecution, including the followers of legally recognized religions like Christianity and Judaism. The Christian community has often been the target of hate crimes, faced restrictions to building new churches or repairing old ones, and been denied new state identification papers after converting from Islam. The Jewish community that remains after having large populations of Jews being forced out of the country in the 1950’s, faces restrictions in marriage because Jewish men may not marry Muslim women and Jewish women must convert to Islam to marry Muslim men. This has effectively decreased the Jewish population as well. Recently, the government has made some progress toward religious tolerance and freedoms. Increasingly, public officials are appointing women to serve in public office; this has included Christian women as judges. Courts have also ruled in favor of Christians after instances of violence against their communities. These actions are few, however, and much more is needed for Egypt to uphold its constitutional guarantee of religious freedom. Religious Beliefs In Egypt Rank Religion Population (%) 1 Sunni Muslim 94.9 2 Christian 5.1 3 Other >1

By Amber Pariona

•culled from

The Biggest Cities In Modern Egypt

The ancient city of Cairo has transformed into a giant modern metropolitan area housing more than 20 million Egyptians.

Most people think of the Great Pyramids when they hear of the country Egypt . But this country is much more than ancient ruins. It is home to several large cities with lucrative economies and rich histories. The most populated cities in Egypt can be found below.

Most Populated Egyptian Cities


The biggest city in Egypt today is Cairo with a population of 20,439,541. Now the capital of Egypt, this city was founded in 969 AD although its roots date back to 2,000 BC. People come here to see the Great Pyramids (technically located in Giza). Al-Azhar, one of the oldest universities in the world, is also found here. Cairo also takes its place as the most populated desert city with a cosmopolitan setting, people from all over the world call this city home. Throughout the city, visitors can find Islamic architecture and see art from thousands of years ago.


The second largest city in Egypt is Alexandria where 4,546,231 people live. The population has grown rapidly over the last hundred years due to high birth rates and rural to urban migration. This metropolitan area also shares a long history that dates back to Greco-Roman times. Once home to the famed Pharos Lighthouse and backdrop for the relationship of Cleopatra and Mark Antony, Alexandria was well-known as the academic center of the world. Today, it is an important port city and industrial area.


Giza is home to 3,628,062 people and is the third largest city in the country, considered a suburb of the Greater Cairo metropolitan area. In ancient times, this was the burial ground for several pharaohs and around 642 AD, Islamic caliphates conquered the area and founded Giza. Today, its main economic activities include machinery, cigarettes, chemicals, and movies.

Shubra El-Kheima

Another suburb of the Greater Cairo metropolitan region, Shubra El-Kheima has a population of 1,099,354. The majority of people who live here work in the factories of the area although recently, there has been an increase in rural to urban migrants settling here. Historically, this city was an important market town due to its location on the river and was once home to an Ottoman viceroy.

Port Said

The population of Port Said is 603,787 and it is located north-east of Cairo. Although significantly smaller than the other cities on this list, Port Said is one of the most important cities in Egypt. It serves as the entrance to the Suez Canal thus making it a top economic producer for the country. Shoppers can take advantage of all of the imports and exports and exports at the free zone where products can be purchased free of tax.


Suez is number 6 on the list with 565,716 people inside its borders. This has been an important seaport location since at least the 7th century when it facilitated trade between countries to the north and Arabian lands. Today, it is the site of large oil refineries and a petrochemical plant. Finished products arrive to Cairo via pipelines, highways, and railroads.

El-Mahalla El-Kubra

Number 7 on the list, El-Mahalla El-Kubra has a population of 535,278. This is an important agricultural and industrial center and is one of the best textile producers in the country. In recent years, it has been grounds for protesting workers conditions, election results, and employment benefits.


Luxor is another popular city with tourists and was once known as Thebes or the City of a Hundred Gates. Not only is it home to 506,588 people, but also the immense Luxor Temple which was completed sometime between 1336 and 1327 BC. Given its historic importance and architectural preservation, tourism is the number 1 economic activity here. Agriculture, particularly sugar cane production, also plays an important role.


Mansoura has a population of 495,630 and was founded during the Ayyubid Dynasty in 1219. King Louis IX of France was imprisoned in the house of Ibrahim bin Lokman during a battle in 1250. This site is now a museum and contains some personal effects of the King. This city once housed a large Greek population but they were forced to leave during the Nasser era. The population today is growing from rural to urban migration.


The final city on the list is Tanta. With a population of 445,560, this city is located 58 miles north of Cairo and is famous for its desserts. The main economic activity is cultivating cotton and producing textiles. At the end of harvest season, Tanta celebrates the Moulid of Sayid Ahmed el-Badawi, an 8-day religious festival that receives over 2 million pilgrims who come to pay their respects to the tomb of el-Badawi.

Geographic Distribution of Major Egyptian Cities
As noted in the above list, the majority of these cities are located along the River Nile, near the Suez Canal, or on the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas . This is because around 90% of available land in Egypt is desert which is a climate too harsh to support large human populations. Also, sites along waterways help to ease the transportation of goods which promotes economic activity.

The Biggest Cities In Modern Egypt

Rank City Metropolitan Population

1 Cairo 20,439,541
2 Alexandria 4,546,231
3 Giza 3,628,062
4 Shubra El-Kheima 1,099,354
5 Port Said 603,787
6 Suez 565,716
7 El-Mahalla El-Kubra 535,278
8 Luxor 506,588
9 Mansoura 495,630
10 Tanta 445,560

By Amber Pariona

•culled from

Major Ethnic Groups in Egypt

Ethnic Egyptians constitute the highest percentage of the Egyptian population.

Egypt is a country in North African with a population of 93 million people. The country’s history is very rich. It has some of the oldest civilizations in the world and the most iconic sites on earth such as the pyramids.

Ethnic Groups in Egypt

The larger population in Egypt is the Egyptians. Egyptians make 95% of Egypt’s population. Egyptians speak the modern Egyptian Arabic. On the other hand, there are the minorities such as the Berbers of Siwa oasis, Nubian of southern Nile, Bedouins, and Copts who make 5% of the entire population. The Nubians speak Nubian language while Copts speak Coptic language mainly in church during prayers and hymns.


This tribe lives across North Africa. Bedouins are ancient people who originated from the people of Arabian Peninsula. Bedouins tribe is composed of different tribes from many regions of Egypt. Few Bedouin are nomadic as they live in tents which makes it easier to migrate. Women in Bedouins culture have the responsibility to demolish and assemble the tents whenever they migrate. However, the majority of Bedouin are not nomads as they have permanent homes. Modern culture has changed the lifestyle of Bedouins. Although the children wear modern clothing, the women still dress traditionally. Bedouins began to adopt modern culture in the mid-20 th century when they settled in the cities.


Berbers are also a tribe living across North Africa belonging to a minority group. In Egypt, they are very few compared to other northern countries. Berbers were named by conquerors but later they changed to Amazighen. Berbers are Muslims and speak the Berber language which is a family of different languages with closely related dialects. Originally, Berbers were not Muslims but converted to Islam after settling in Egypt.

Population Density

Egypt is a highly populated country among Arab countries. It is the third most populated country in Africa after Ethiopia and Nigeria. Of its population of 93 million people, about 95% stay along river Nile banks and the Nile delta. The residents also inhibit the Suez Canal and north of Cairo. These areas are the most highly populated in the world having an average of over 3,820 people per square mile.

The government in Egypt has put in efforts with limited success, encouraging migration to new areas reclaimed from the desert. Despite these efforts, the population in the countryside keeps on decreasing as most people migrate to big towns looking for employment and better living standards. However, small populations are scattered in the desert regions and some clustered around transportation routes and historic trading areas. According to Peterson Institute for International Economics, the main problems leading to migration is the high number of graduates and unemployment.


Almost all Egyptians are Muslims. Statistics by the CIA World Fact Book indicate that 90% of the population is Muslim while Christians are 10% involving Copts of Coptic Orthodox Church Alexandria among others.


Arabic is the official language spoken in Egypt. The majority of the population in Egypt speaks Egyptian Arabic. However, Sa’idi Arabic is widely spoken in the upper Nile, Siwa language is common among the Berbers, and Nubian language among the Nubians. Furthermore, French and English are also common among some residents. Coptic language is popular during church masses, meditations, and prayers.

By Samuel Kinuthia

•culled from

Tuesday, 15 October 2019


Everything you need to know about Belizean Music

Belize has a rich and varied musical history, partly in due to the contributions of various cultures and groups living in the country. Whether it is modern genres like punta rock or traditional dances inherited from the long centuries of Maya presence, the music of Belize is truly unique.

Mestizo Music

Following a number of bloody wars in neighboring Mexico, a group known today as the Mestizos emigrated to Belize, bringing their unique musical styles and influences with them. Mestizo music often features the marimba, a Caribbean twist on an African xylophone-like instrument. Mestizo musical styles featuring the marimba usually also have a double bass, drum sets, and other instruments.

A popular musical genre performed in Mestizo areas of Belize is cumbia, an energetic up-tempo style similar to merengue, salsa, and other latino dances.

Kriol Music

Developed by the African slaves and their descendants brought to Belize, Kriol music has developed a number of unique genres. One of the most popular styles of Kriol music is known as brukdown ( Creole for “breakdown”, referring to “broken down calypso”) that includes a popular sub-genre called buru. Originally, buru was performed by musicians using a banjo, drums, and the jawbone of a donkey. Other sub-genres of brukdown include mento music, heavily influenced by Jamaican and Trinidadian forms of calypso music.

One of the hottest genres of Kriol music today is called “boom and chime”, featuring an electric guitar, conga drums, and a bass guitar.

Garifuna Music

Garifuna culture first developed when African slaves imported to work on Caribbean island plantations intermarried with indigenous Caribbean islanders. Due to social isolation, the Garifuna preserved their unique language, food, and musical styles that incorporate African rhythms and philosophies.

There are dozens of traditional Garifuna folk dance and musical styles, including: hungu-hungu, combination, matamuerte, laremuna wadaguman, gunjai, sambai, paranda, berusu, arumahani, and abaimahani. The most popular Garifuna-influenced modern styles include punta and punta rock, popular for their danceable rhythms and up-tempo beats.

The most important elements of traditional Garifuna music are the drums. Sometimes played separately, Garifuna drums are traditionally made from local hardwoods like mahogany and fitted with domestic animal skins like deer, sheep, or peccaries. Garifuna drums are often accompanied by an instrument known as a sisera, similar in appearance and design to maracas.

Modern Musical Styles

Music and dancing are integral elements in Belizean culture, and it is now possible to hear a wide variety of different musical styles throughout the country, including reggae, punta, soca, dancehall, hip hop, rock n’ roll, and even heavy metal. The most popular musical styles heard at clubs and dances include top 40 music from the USA and Britain, soca (from Trinidad) and dancehall (from Jamaica).

Thanks to its unique history as a melting pot of different cultures, languages, and musical styles, Belize has served as a catalyst for fusions of traditional and modern musical styles. Whether it is the high-speed patter of singing in cumbia in the north or the steady rhythms of Garifuna drums in the southeast, Belize is a country where music is cherished, enjoyed, and extremely popular with both locals and visitors alike.

•culled from

Monday, 14 October 2019

Religious Beliefs In Bahrain

Islam is the official religion in Bahrain.



Bahrain is an island nation located in the Persian Gulf . It comprises the main island of Bahrain and several other smaller islands and islets surrounding it. The King Fahd Causeway connects Bahrain to Saudi Arabia. The country hosts a population of around 1,234,571 individuals. Less than 50% of the country’s population is Bahraini and the rest are non-nationals. Bahrain is among the world's most densely populated places.

Religions Practised In Bahrain

According to the CIA World Factbook, Islam is the state religion of Bahrain and is followed by around 70.3% of the population of the country. Most Bahraini citizens are Muslim and most Muslims are Shiites. The country also has a small but significant Christian population. 14.5% of the population of the country adhere to Christianity. Hindus, Buddhists, Jews, and folk religions account for 9.8%, 2.5%, 0.6%, and less than 1% of the total population, and 1.9% of the population is not affiliated to any religion.

Islam In Bahrain

Bahrain was one of the earliest places to accept Islam. Prior to the introduction of this religion in the country, the indigenous people of the area practiced Arabian paganism that involved the worship of idols. Islam arrived in the Arabian region in the 7th century. In 628 AD, the first envoy was sent by Muhammad to the historical region of Bahrain to convince its ruler to accept Islam. The ruler did convert to the religion followed by most of his subjects in Bahrain and Qatar. The Khamis Mosque is believed to be the country’s oldest mosque. Later, in 899, the Ismaili Shia sect occupied Bahrain. They also raided Mecca and Medina and brought the Black Stone to Bahrain where it remained for about 20 years. However, the Abbasids defeated the sect in 976. Today, according to unofficial sources, Sunnis and Shias comprise about 45% and 55% of the Muslim population of Bahrain, respectively. Islamic holidays are strictly observed in the country.

Other Religions In Bahrain

As a large number of foreign workers stay in Bahrain, they practice their own religions in the country. Many of the workers are from the South Asian nations of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Some of them are Muslims while others are Hindus or Sikhs. Although the country’s constitution does state that Islam is the official religion, it also allows for freedom of religion. However, this freedom is regulated by the government. The believers in other religions are expected to respect the traditions and culture of the country and act accordingly. Licenses and permits are required for holding religious meetings or establishing religious bodies in the country.

Religious Beliefs In Bahrain By Percentage

Rank Religion Population (%)

1 Muslim 70.3
2 Christian 14.5
3 Hindu 9.8
4 Buddhist 2.5
5 Unaffiliated 1.9
6 Jewish 0.6
7 Other 0.2
8 Folk Religion 0.1

By Oishimaya Sen Nag

•culled from

What Is The Ethnic Composition Of Bahrain?

Ethnic Bahrainis account for 46% of the country's population.


Bahrain Demographics

Bahrain is an island state that is situated in the
Persian Gulf . Bahrain is located between Saudi Arabia and the Qatar peninsula. Bahrain Island is linked to Saudi Arabia by the 16 miles long King Fahd Causeway. It is the third-smallest Asian state right after Singapore and the Maldives.
Bahrain is an ethnically diverse state that is made up of over eight communities. Some of the main ethnic groups living in Bahrain include Bahrainis (46%), Asians (45.5%), Africans (1.6%), Europeans (1%), and other Arabs (4.7%) among others. Over 55% of the residents are immigrants. A considerable percentage of the immigrants in Bahrain came from Southeast and South Asia. About 8,000 Indonesians, 45,000 Filipinos, 45,000 Pakistanis, 125,000 Bangladeshis, and 290,000 Indians migrated to Bahrain from 2005 to 2009. Some of the main ethnic communities living in the country include:


The Baharna people are the original inhabitants of Bahrain. Baharna community is a Shia-Muslim ethnoreligious group who live in the historical area of Eastern Arabia. The Shia Bahrainis are split into two ethnic groups: Ajam and Baharna. The Ajams are Persian Shias while the Shia Bahrainis are Arabs (Baharna). A huge percentage of the Persian Shias have established large communities in Muharraq and Manama. A smaller group of the Shia Bahrainis, known as Hasawis, came from Al-Hasa.

Ajam of Bahrain

The Ajam of Bahrain, also known as Iranian Bahrainis or Persian Bahrainis, is an ethnic group residing in Bahrain. The Ajam of Bahrain is composed of Shia-Bahraini citizens that are of non-Arab Iranians living in Bahrain. There are over 100,000 Ajams in Bahrain, making up about 14% of the total population. The Ajams of Bahrain are bilingual and converse in both Arabic and Persian. The Persians started migrating to Bahrain during the days of Achaemenid Persian and Sassanid empires. Initially, the Persians settled in Mushbir, but they moved to other towns in Bahrain with time. Currently, a significant number of Ajam communities reside in the numerous modernized Shia towns in Bahrain islands and Muharraq.

Other Communities

The Bania also referred to as the Vanya, Vania or the Vaniya, are a group of merchants, money-lenders, bankers and grain or spice dealers living in Bahrain. The Bania are Indians who traded with the natives centuries ago and settled in the country long before the age-of-oil. Another small community found in Bahrain is the Hola community. The Hola community is composed of Sunni Arabs who migrated to Bahrain from Persia during the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries. The Bahraini Jews community is small. Numerous sources claim that there are between 36 to 50 Jews living in Bahrain.


Bahrain had a population of about 1,234,571 people by 2010, and this included 666,172 non-Bahraini and 568,399 Bahraini.


Even though English is widely used in the country, the official language of Bahrain is Arabic. The most widely spoken Arabic dialect on the planet is the Bahrain Arabic, which differs widely from Arabic. The Arabic language plays a key role in the country’s politics since anyone who wants to become the country’s Member of Parliament (MP) must know Arabic. A considerate percentage of the population converse in Urdu (Pakistan’s official language) or Persian (Iran’s official language). Nepali is used by the Gurkha Soldiers and Nepalese workers. Hindi, Bangla, Tamil, and Malayalam are also used among numerous Indian communities. All road signs and commercial institutions in Bahrain display both the Arabic language and English.


Islam is Bahrain’s state religion with a huge percentage of the locals being Muslims. The majority of the Muslims in Bahrain are Shiites. Bahrain is one of the 3 middles eastern states with the highest number of Shiites. The 2017 Bahrain national survey confirmed that 32% of Bahrainis are Sunni while 62% are Shia.

By Geoffrey Migiro

•culled from

The Culture and Customs Of Bahrain

Bahrain has an ethnically diverse population which is reflected in its culture.



Bahrain has one of the most ethnically diverse societies in the world, owing to the cosmopolitan nature of its population. Foreign citizens outnumber Bahraini citizens, and therefore foreign influence has been integral in shaping the culture of the kingdom. Foreign influence can be seen in the language in Bahrain. While Arabic is recognized as the kingdom’s official language, Persian, Urdu, and English are some of the popular languages in Bahrain. Nonetheless, the culture of Bahrain is largely based on Arabic culture and is similar to the cultures of the kingdom’s neighboring countries. The most popular language in Bahrain is Bahraini Arabic, a local dialect of Arabic used in the kingdom.


The official religion in the country is Islam and is recognized as such in the Constitution. The Constitution also spells out religion freedom, but the government restricts this freedom in specific instances. Muslims account for about 99.8% of Bahraini citizens. The majority of Muslims in the kingdom identify as Shia Muslims, constituting at least 66% of Bahrain’s Muslims. Census data in Bahrain does not provide for the population of individual religions except for Islam. Nonetheless, the Christian population in the kingdom is estimated to be 1,000 while the Jewish population is believed to be 40. Hinduism is practiced by a section of foreigners in Bahrain, with the kingdom having a few Hindu temples.


Music is another aspect of Bahrain’s culture and exists in different types of genres. The most popular style of traditional music in the country is known as “ Khaleeji,” which is composed and performed in the Arab world. Traditional musical instruments such as the Rebaba and the Oud feature prominently in Bahraini folk music. Sawt music and the zaffan dance were famous in the early 20 th century but still have a significant following in the country. Modernity can be seen in Bahrain’s music, with western genres such as heavy metal and progressive rock being popular among the young generation. Some of the renowned local bands that perform from these genres include Death Box Audio, The Relocators, Hot Laser, and Bloodshed. The Osiris, a Bahraini band, gained global prominence in the 1980s for incorporating traditional Bahraini music with progressive rock.


Football is the most popular sport in the kingdom, with the Bahrain Premier League being the top-tier domestic league for the sport in the kingdom. 1952 marked the first season of the Bahrain Premier League. Teams placed at the bottom at the end of a football season are relegated to the second tier professional league known as the Bahraini Classification League. Many of the local football matches are held at the Bahrain National Stadium. Another favorite sport in Bahrain is cricket, with the kingdom being represented in international competitions by the Bahraini national cricket team. The national cricket team has featured in the ACC Trophy on numerous editions after marking its debut in the 2004 edition. The Bahrain Cricket Association governs the sport in Bahrain. The kingdom has its domestic cricket league known as the Bahrain Cricket League which was founded in 1981. A total of 48 professional cricket teams participate in the Bahrain Cricket League. Mixed martial arts is another famous sport in Bahrain. The Bahraini government has invested heavily in developing the sport to positive results as the kingdom hosted the 2017 edition of the Amateur World Championships. Motorsport is quickly becoming among Bahrain’s top sports, with the kingdom having a Formula-One track. Motorsport competitions held in Bahrain attract professional racers from all over the world. The Gulf Air Grand Prix of 2004, which was held in the kingdom, was the first of its kind to be held in an Arab country.


Arabic art has been made in the kingdom for centuries in the form of paintings, embroideries, crafts, and calligraphic texts. Bahrain is home to ancient pottery which has been dated back to the 3rd Millennium BC. Modern Bahrain art has its origins traced to the 1950s and coinciding with the formation of the Arts and Literature Club. Bahraini artists came together and formed the Bahrain Arts Society in 1983. The arts society has received assistance from the Bahraini government to enable the artists to receive training in Arabic art, as well as to host exhibitions in the country. A large collection of Bahrain art is domiciled at the Bahrain National Museum.

Performance arts have a significant following in Bahrain, with a few theatres in the kingdom. Theatre enjoyed its golden age in the 1970s when famous local playwrights staged home-grown plays to great acclaim. The government is, however, investing in revitalizing the theatre industry in Bahrain and offers subsidies to the three non-profit theatres in the country. The government also oversaw the construction of the National Theatre of Bahrain, a 1,001-seater theatre in Manama that was opened in 2012. The film industry in the country is also growing, with Bahrain being home to about 45 cinemas. Film was introduced to the kingdom in the early 20 th century with the opening of the first makeshift cinema in 1937. The country has since seen the establishment of modern cinemas including the kingdom’s first IMAX theatre in 2015. The total number of admissions in Bahrain’s cinemas was over 2.1 million in 2009.


Due to its aridity and limited land resource, Bahrain produces a small percentage of its own food and relies on imports to meet domestic demand. Arabic, Indian, Persian, and even African influences can be seen in Bahraini cuisine. Rice, dates, and wheat are some of the staple food in the kingdom. Meat and fish also feature prominently in Bahraini cuisine. Lamb and mutton are the common red meats in the kingdom while chicken and fish make up the white meats cooked in most Bahraini households and restaurants. The most common dish in Bahrain is Biryani which consists of seasoned rice prepared with either lamb or chicken. Biryani has Indian origins, as an example of foreign influence in Bahraini cuisine. Coffee is the most popular beverage in the kingdom, with a local coffee brew known as “ Qahwah” being recognized as Bahrain’s national beverage. Tea is also popular among Bahrain citizens and is served in many households.

By Joseph Kiprop

•culled from

Sunday, 13 October 2019

The Largest Religions in Wales

Christianity remains the largest religion in Wales.

Some of the major religions in the world are found in Wales including Christianity (the largest religion in Wales), Sikhism , Islam, Judaism , and Hinduism. Most of the non-Christian faiths can be found in the cities of Swansea, Cardiff, and Newport.

The Largest Religions In Wales


Christianity remains the largest religion in Wales. The religion first arrived in Wales at the height of the Roman Empire. It was initially banned by the authorities who were skeptical and suspicious about its exclusivity and secrecy. It started as an urban religion and steadily grew among the population. In recent years, the religion has witnessed a significant drop from its historic highs. For example, in 2001, when an estimated 71% of its population professed the faith, the proportion of believers dropped to 57% according to statistics taken in 2011.

No religion

While the number of people professing the various religions such as Christianity has been on a steady decline, those identifying with no religion have been on the rise. In 2011, an estimated 32% of the population had no religion in Wales which is a rise from 15% that was recorded in 2001.


Islam is the largest non-Christian faith in Wales. According to the census of 2001, the religion had 22,000 members. The religion is thought to have experienced significant growth in the south of Wales when the City of Cardiff was among the largest coal exporting ports in the world. The Yemeni Muslim population in the city is also thought to be among the oldest members of the faith in Britain. The city's first purpose-built mosque was built in 1947. The mosques number has since increased to about 40 in total.

Hinduism and Buddhism

The two religions have about 5,000 Welsh members each. It means that each accounts for 0.3% of the population. The largest number of Buddhists is found in Ceredigion.


Sikhism has about 2,000 members who represent about 0.1% of the population.
Other Religions Practiced In Wales
According to the census of 2001, the number of people from “other religions” in Wales was about 7,000. A large number of people in this category identified themselves as Druids. The Druid beliefs were practiced before the Roman invasion, and the revival of the religion arguably marks a full circle in the religion's history.

The Largest Religions in Wales

Rank Religion Population (%)

1 Christianity 57.6
2 No religion 32.1
3 Islam 1.5
4 Other religion 0.4
5 Hinduism 0.3
6 Buddhism 0.3
7 Sikhism 0.1
8 Judaism 0.1

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culled from

Population Of The United Kingdom

64.1 million people inhabit the European nation of United Kingdom, equivalent to about 0.88% of the total world population.

The United Kingdom, comprised of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, has a population of approximately 64.1 million. About 83.9% of the people live in England. The entire region has gone through all the phases of demographic changes and today experiences a low population growth. This decline in growth is due, in part, to the low fertility rate of 1.92 children per woman. In order to maintain a healthy population size, a fertility rate of 2 is required. The mortality rate is also low with 9.3 deaths per 1,000 people. Ages are distributed as follows: 17.6% are between 0 and 14 years, 66% between 15 and 64, and 16.4% over the age of 65. Together, cardiovascular disease and cancer are responsible for 60% of all deaths.


People of British ancestry have their roots in a variety of indigenous groups including the Celtic, Norse, Anglo-Saxon, Normans, and Romans. Many of these groups came to and settled in the area from the Iberian Peninsula during the Neolithic period between 10,500 BC and 2,000 BC. Over time, these settlers divided into three major groups: the English, Scotch, and Welsh. The people were divided into various kingdoms ruled by different indigenous leaders for hundreds of years. By 937 AD, the regions were united as one nation state under the rule of Anglo-Saxon King Athelstan of Wessex. This was the first unifying moment that brought the cultures together as one “British” culture. This did not, however, stop tribal and clan identities which, over many centuries, led Scotland, Wales, and Ireland to fight for their independence from England. In 1707, Scotland and England signed a unity treaty and in 1800, Ireland followed suit.


Religious identity and practice of the poupulation of the United Kingdom are varied but declining. In fact, 49% of the population identifies as irreligious, which is the lack of religious belief, atheism, and agnosticism. This religious identity is common and increasing throughout Europe. The UK has entered a period of post-Christianity. Of the four nations within the UK, England is the least religious.

The second most commonly practiced religion is Anglican Christianity, practiced in the Church of England, Church of Scotland, Church of Ireland, and Church of Wales. The religion was formed in 1534 when its followers broke away from the Catholic Church due to different interpretations of the Christian holy text. Since then, this has been the predominant Christian denomination and today, 17% of the population identify as such.
Another 17% of the people of the UK practice non-Catholic and non-Anglican Christian denominations. These include Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Orthodox, and Evangelical (to name a few). In Ireland, the second largest religion is Protestantism.

Roman Catholicism is practiced by 8% of the population and has an interesting history in the UK. After the church split, the Catholic Church would not recognize the previously mentioned Anglican church. Catholics, in turn, were discriminated against and prohibited from fully participating in society. In Northern Ireland, 40% of the population is Catholic.

Only 5% of the population consider themselves Muslim, although it is the fastest growing religion in the region due to immigration patterns. Approximately 3% of the population practice religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Sikhism, and Baha’i.


Today, the UK is made up of more than people of British descent. Events throughout history have shaped the face of the region today and resulted in some groups of different ethnicities. For example, the African slave trade of the 1700’s resulted in a small population of Black British (a controversial term). International trade with China during the 19th century brought many Chinese immigrants. Beginning in 1964, many immigrants from former British colonies came to the UK, originating from Africa, the Caribbean, and South Asia. Additionally, since 2004, many immigrants have come from Central and Eastern Europe as a result of being included in the European Union.
The 2011 census results are as follows: White (87%); Asian British, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese, and others (6.9%); Black British (3%); Mixed (2%); Other (.9%); and Gypsy or Irish Traveller (.1%).


The official language of the poupulation of the United Kingdom is English, which is spoken by 95% of the population. In 1992, Europe drafted the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in order to preserve historical languages throughout the region. This protection is only provided to the original languages used by historic national populations, thus excluding the languages of recent immigrants. In the UK, these languages include Scots, Cornish, Ulster-Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and Irish. The use of these languages is measured by abilities like speaking, reading, and writing. The percentage of people who can at least speak these languages is Welsh (18.35%), Scots (30.12%), Irish (6.05%), Ulster-Scots (2.04%), Scottish Gaelic (1.13%), and Cornish (.09%). The second most common non-historic language spoken in the UK is Polish, used by 1.01% of the population.


The UK has provided free public education since a long time. In 1870, universal primary level education was established in England, Wales, and Scotland. The secondary level was established in 1900. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 are required to attend school, and only small percentages attend private school. After secondary school, children have the option to obtain higher levels of education which includes apprenticeships and vocational training. This dedication to education has had a tremendous impact on the literacy rate throughout the UK. Today, approximately 99% of the population can read and write.

Sources Of Livelihood

The economy in the UK is one of the strongest in the world. About 78% of the UK’s gross domestic product comes from the service industry, which includes jobs in retail, transportation, sales, entertainment, restaurants, hotels, healthcare, financial services, and any other area that provides services to other businesses or customers. Other major employers in the UK include the automobile, pharmaceutical, and aerospace industries.

Future Trends

As previously mentioned, the poupulation of the United Kingdom is experiencing relatively slow growth due to low fertility rates among women. However, immigration to the region has led to an increase in population. In fact, 53% of the growth experienced between 1991 and 2014 was due to migration. This trend is could continue over the next 20 years or so. As people from different countries and cultures settle in the UK, they will contribute to natural changes in birth and death rates. Approximately 17% of future growth is expected to come from these changes. This means that new immigrants will directly, and indirectly, contribute to roughly 70% of expected future growth trends.

By Amber Pariona

•culled from

The Welsh: Cultures of the World

Welsh people refer to the people from Wales and also the people of Welsh ancestry who are perceived to be sharing cultural heritage and ancestral origin.

The Welsh people are a nation and an ethnic group native to Wales. The Welsh language belongs to the Insular Celtic family and has historically been spoken mostly in Wales. The origin of the Welsh nation can be traced to the late 4th and early 5th century after the departure of the Romans. Welsh people refer to the people from Wales and also the people of Welsh ancestry who are perceived to be sharing cultural heritage and ancestral origin. Wales in itself is a country that forms part of the United Kingdom with the majority of the people being British citizens.

The Welsh people have a distinctive culture including their own language, customs, beliefs, holidays, music, and cuisine. The Welsh culture has endured despite the series of invasions, absorption into Great Britain, and mass arrival of non-Welsh residents. The Welsh language has played a key role in the promotion of the Welsh culture. Key to the Welsh culture is the folk tradition of poetry and music that continues to promote the Welsh language to date. The Welsh scholars and intellectuals in the past centuries published extensively on the Welsh culture which has been handed down to the new generation.


The development of cities and towns in Wales did not begin until the era of industrialization in the 1700s. The rural areas are characterized by older, traditional, and whitewashed stone buildings. Successful settlements and villages have grown into political and economic centers while some villages have become the center of rural society, especially southern and eastern Wales. The timber-framed houses emerged in the Middle Age, first from the north then to the rest of Wales. In the late 16th century, houses began to vary in sizes and refinement reflecting a significant growth in the middle class. The land owner began to build brick houses that reflected the vernacular style that was popular in England then. The industrialization period in the 18th century led to the urban growth that was characterized by the imitation of English architecture. Currently, most of the homes in Wales are owner-occupied.


Welsh cuisine is said to be similar to English with slight regional variations that can be traced historically to the availability of certain types of food. Cawl is considered the Welsh national dish - it is a slow-cooked combination of meat and vegetables. It was a traditionally vegetable-heavy dish but meat has since been included. Cheese is a common ingredient used in cooking several traditional dishes including Glamorgan sausage. The cakes are made of bakestone, sultanas, and currants. The Welsh consider beer as their national drink. The production of Whisky in Wales is also historically a niche industry.

Cultural Significance

Generally, Welsh culture has a direct impact on the way of life and the interaction in the country. The Welsh language has historically been spoken in most parts of Wales and the UK. It remains a predominant language in some parts of the country. The Welsh festivals of Calan Mai, Calan Awst, and Calenning are some of the most celebrated traditional festivals throughout Wales. Some of the festivals such as St David’s Day have been proposed to be considered as a public holiday. The Welsh Music has often promoted the country on international levels with Wales commonly referred to as the "Land of songs".


The decline in the number of Welsh speakers in rural areas is attributed to the movement of non-Welsh speaking population to the area. Most of the Welsh people are also adopting English as their main language with the majority in South Wales preferring to speak English to Welsh. The linguistic decline has been witnessed in most part of the country despite the increase in Welsh-language nursery education. Socialization with other cultures, especially English and Irish culture has reduced the popularity of the Welsh culture outside of Wales. The adoption of the modern western culture, especially in art and music is significantly weakening the Welsh culture.

By John Misachi

•culled from

Saturday, 12 October 2019

The Religious Demographics Of Italy

Christianity is the dominant religion in Italy, with 71.4% of the population of the population being Christians.


Italy Religion

Italy is among Europe’s most developed countries covering an estimated area of 116,347 square miles. Italy shares its borders with Austria , France , San Marino Vatican City, and Slovenia. It is the third most populous country in Europe with a population of 61 million. Po Valley is the most populated area in Italy accounting for over 50% of the total population. while Sardinia Island and the Basilicata Plateau are the least populated areas. Italy has no state-recognized or official religion – however, the Catholic Church plays a significant role in society. Some of the common religions in Italy include Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Judaism .

Major Religions In Italy


71.4% of Italians ascribe to Christianity making it the dominant religion in the country with Catholicism being the majority Christian denomination. Other Christian denominations include Orthodox , Jehovah’s Witness, Protestant , and Methodists. The Catholic Church accounts for 93% of all Christians in Italy. Vatican City, which is the headquarters of over one billion Catholics worldwide, is within the territory of Italy and has a massive influence on the growth of Catholic Church in Italy. Most of the Catholic religious orders have their offices in Italy, specifically Rome. These orders include Benedictines, Jesuits, Dominicans, Redemptorists, Silesians, Franciscans, and Divine Word Missionaries. Italy is divided into 225 Dioceses headed by bishops. Apart from the Catholic Church, there are other native churches, and these are Italo-Albanian Catholic Church and Waldensian Evangelical Church which originated from Lyon in France forming a Calvinist denomination. Some of the Protestant churches in Italy include Baptist Evangelical Christian Union of Italy, Lutheran Evangelical Church, Methodist Church, and Presbyterian Church in Italy.


Islam does not command a huge following as Christianity in Italy and is not recognized by the state. Only 3.1% of the population in Italy confesses Islam faith. Islam is thought to have been brought into Italy when the Abbasid Caliphate took control of Sicily in the 9th Century. The Norman Conquest led to the conversion of Muslims leading to their decline in Italy. In the 20th Century, Somali Immigrants started arriving in Italy, and the immigration has continued to date. Muslims have had issues with the presence of Crucifix in public places demanding their removal.


Buddhists in Italy account for only 0.4% of the total population. Buddhism in Italy can be traced back to 1960s when Buddhists Italian Association was founded. In 1985 Italian Buddhist was formed in Milan with the president recognizing the union in 1991. The agreement between the IBU and the Italian government was signed in 2007 by the Italian constitution while the agreement became law in 2012.

Other Religions in Italy

Only 0.6% of the Italian population ascribe to other religions such as Hinduism, Sikhism , and Judaism while the rest of the population either ascribe to other faiths or are not affiliated with any religion. With the current rate of immigration, Italy will experience an increase in the number of Muslims coming into the country. Other religions such as Orthodox Christianity are already establishing themselves in the country. Jehovah’s Witnesses, another Christian sect, are also relative newcomers to Italy, and a denomination that is quickly rising there with a popular following of 420,000. Christian immigrants are also pushing up the number of Christians in Italy.

The Religious Demographics Of Italy

Rank Religion Number Of Believers % of Population

1 Christianity 43,433,750 71.4
2 Islam 1,859,100 3.1
3 Buddhism 257,300 0.4
4 Hinduism 177,200 0.3
5 Sikhism 150,000 0.2
6 Judaism 42,850 0.1

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culled from

The Largest Cities in Italy

Rome is the most populous city in Italy, followed by Milan and Naples.


Italy Cities of the World

Italy's history dates back to long before the classical age. As the country developed and gained global influence, civilizations and settlements sprouted up all over. Today, Rome is the biggest city in Italy, as well as the 8th largest city in Europe. As Italy is one of the world's most visited countries , the city of Rome is very popular amongst tourists as well.
All data comes from the Italian Census.

Top 5 Most Populated City in Italy

Rome - 2,872,800

Rome is the largest city in Italy, with nearly 3 million residents within its city center. This city has a history of more than 2,500 years and was first inhabited by Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans. Today, Italians and immigrants from Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Bangladesh, the Phillippines, and China reside in Rome. Given that this city home to Vatican City, it’s no surprise that the dominant religion is Catholicism.

Milan - 1,366,180

With a population of 1.3 million, Milan is the second largest city in Italy. Over history, many different cultures have conquered the city and together they have shaped it into the place it is today. Milan was originally founded by Celtic Insubres around 400 BC. Later, Romans took power followed by the Germanic Visigoths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, the Lombards, and the Franks. In recent times, Italians from rural areas and foreign born individuals (particularly from Africa, Eastern Europe, Asians, and South Americans) make up the composition of the city.

Naples - 966,144

The third largest city in Italy is Naples with a population of just under one million. As one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, its history of inhabitants is long and diverse. Around 2,000 BC, Greek immigrants settled here and stayed throughout centuries until the city became part of the Roman Republic. After the fall of the Roman Empire , Naples became the capital of the Kingdom of Naples for nearly 600 years until 1812. Interestingly, 98.5% of the residents are Italian born.

Turin - 882,523

Turin, in northern Italy, is the fourth most populated city in Italy with a population of just under one million. It is found in the country's Piedmont region. Turin is well known for its art galleries, public squares, and architecture. It hosted the 2006 Olympics.

Palermo - 668,405

Palermo is Italy's fifth largest city, with a population of over half a million. It is the largest city in Sicily. It is an ancient city that dates back thousands of years. It is often visited for its Mediterranean weather.

Future Demographic Trends

Although these cities have impressive population sizes, they are not expected to grow. In fact, the overall population of Italy is expected to decline over the next three decades or so. The issue is that of an aging population, and the fact that the death rate is exceeding the birth rate.

The Ten Biggest Metropolitan Cities In Italy

Rank City Population

1 Rome 2,872,800
2 Milan 1,366,180
3 Naples 966,144
4 Turin 882,523
5 Palermo 668,405
6 Genoa 580,097
7 Bologna 389,261
8 Florence 380,948
9 Bari 323,370
10 Catania 311,620

By Amber Pariona

•culled from

Friday, 11 October 2019

Largest Ethnic Groups Of Italy

Around 8% of Italy's population identify as one of numerous non-Italian minorities, with Romanian Italians being the largest among them.


Italy Demographics

Around 8% of Italy’s population identify as one of the numerous non-Italian minorities, with Romanian Italians being the largest of the minority groups. The dominant ethnic group in Italy is the native Italians who mainly speak the Italian language. Minority groups in Italy are majorly a result of immigration and settlement from other countries. Most of these immigrants went to Italy seeking employment opportunities.


Nearly 92.0% of Italy’s population is Italians making it the largest ethnic group in the country. Native groups in the Italian Peninsula were the Etruscans while groups such as Greeks, Germans, Jews, Romans and Celts occupied the Peninsula in medieval times. Descendants of the indigenous groups and the settlers make up the modern-day Italians. In the Southern part of Italy , Greek-Italians and Albanian-Italians are found while the North part is dominated by the French-Italians, Slovene-Italians, and German-Italians. Of all the occupations in the Italian Peninsula, the Romans influenced the culture of Italians the most. With time, different provinces of Italians developed their culture and dialects, a diversity which is still evident in the modern day Italy. Most Italians profess to the Roman Catholic religion while a small number profess to Judaism or Protestantism or migratory Islam. Notable Italians have made major contributions in the fields of culture, arts, language, science, and literature. Famous Italians are Leonard da Vinci for his contributions in architecture and paleontology and Galileo Galilei, a dominant figure in astronomy.


1.8% of the total population in Italy are Romanians. The presence of Romanians in Italy is attributed to immigrations to Italy by Romanian citizens who began in the 1990s. The first phase of immigrants was fleeing persecution in Romania, while the second phase flocked to Italy for better employment opportunities and improved standards of living. A large number of Romanians in Italy are Christians more specifically Orthodox Christian. Roman Catholic and Protestant make up a small number of Romanians.

The relationship between Italians and Romanians is one of mistrust. Romanians are blamed for illegal and criminal activities. A particular event in October 2007, where an Italian woman was killed in a violent murder by an alleged Romanian immigrant, sparked a significant outcry from Italians. Proposed legislations were made to allow the government to remove certain EU citizens it deems a threat to Italy’s security. Although the legislation was not eventually enforced, profiling of Romanian citizens as criminals continues in Italy. Romanians in Italy are characterized by a strong link to their culture and language. The Romanian presence in Italy is attested through over 200 Orthodox Churches, a political party, and numerous Romanian associations. There is also a Television Station that broadcasts in the Romanian language in Italy.

Maghrebi and Arabic

Maghrebi and Arabic both have a share of 1.1% of the total population in Italy. The majority of the people from these two groups are immigrants from Arab countries such as Tunisia, Libya, Syria ,
Morocco , Lebanon, and Egypt. There existed Muslim communities in Italy in the medieval era, whose presence dwindled as a result of various conquests. Somali asylum seekers in the 20th century to Italy sparked a wave of Muslim immigration. The dominant religion practiced by these ethnicities is Islam, more specifically the Sunni branch of Islam. The Maghrebi Arabic communities have various associations.


0.8% Albanians make up the total population of Italy. Albania and Italy had long close ties in medieval times, mostly through military assistance given by Albania to Italy. Some Albanians, fleeing the occupation of Turks, settled in Italy and established Albanian communities mainly in Southern Italy. These communities still inhabit parts of modern Southern Italy such as Sicily, Calabria, Campania, Molise, and Abruzzi. Arberesh language is common among Albanians in Italy, with different dialects used in various villages. The Albanian community has influenced festivals and celebrations in Italy. The primary religion of the Albanians is Christian Catholic.


Other ethnicities found in Italy by share of the total population are Han Chinese (0.3%) and Ukrainian (0.3%). Italy has been increasingly receiving immigrants seeking asylum, especially from countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa. These immigrants have the potential to affect Italy’s demographics to a small extent. The Muslim population in Italy is projected to increase steadily in Italy and other parts of Europe.

Largest Ethnic Groups Of Italy

Rank Ethnicity or Nationality Share of Italian Population

1 Italian 92.0%
2 Romanian 1.8%
3 Maghrebi and/or Arabic 1.1%
4 Albanian 0.8%
5 Han Chinese 0.3%
6 Ukrainian 0.3%

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culed from

Thursday, 10 October 2019

Why Barbados is a Magnet for Music Lovers

With its laid back lifestyle, festival culture and stunning landscapes, Barbados has long been an attraction for singers, musicians and DJs. Today, it offers visitors a wealth of opportunities to indulge their passion for music, whether that be folk, gospel, calypso or techno. Here we’ll show you why music lovers will adore the musical events the island has to offer.

Vujaday House and Techno Festival

Barbados’ Vujaday Music Festival puts the island on a par with Ibiza when it comes to attracting the top, international house and techno DJs. After an exceptionally successful launch in 2018, this five-day house and techno festival is set to raise the bar even higher next year. With over 30 DJs in the mix, it will become Barbados’ biggest ever electronic festival.

What makes Vujaday different is that each day of the festival takes place at a different location.
This year, events took place at luxury beach clubs, private villas, beachfront bars and even at an 18th Century plantation. The festival, which is held at the beginning of April, aims to create a unique musical experience while giving event goers the chance to visit more of our stunning island.

London Elite Sunshine Music Festival

If you’re more into soul, head to Barbados in November for the London Elite Sunshine Music Festival. Bringing you some of the UK’s finest contemporary soul artists, such as Alastair Rapattac and Omar, together with DJs like Desi G and Phil Philo, you’re sure to have a fantastic time.

The festival runs several events over the course of a week, including a ‘Dress in White’ night at the beautiful Mullens Heights Hotel, a beach party with unlimited champagne at Nikki Beach, an 80’s themed ‘Dress as You Dare’ party at the Dukes nightclub and a catamaran cruise party.

Barbados Gospel Music Festival

For centuries, Barbadians have used Gospel music to celebrate their African heritage and each May they hold the Gospelfest, a three-day event of non-stop performances. Today, this has become the Caribbean’s premier Gospel music and arts festival, featuring some of the most renowned singers and choirs, together with comedians, mime artists and dance acts.

The festival draws performers from all over the Caribbean as well as from the UK, North America and even as far as Africa. Over the years, its various events have been held in stunning locations, such as Heroes Square, Farley Hill National Park and the Jackie Opel Amphitheatre, and have featured artists such as Candi Staton, Richard Smallwood, Donnie McClurkin and Kirk Franklin.

For the ultimate feel-good, head on down to some of these great events where you can sing along and dance to some of the best vocalists performing the greatest Gospel songs.

Barbados Reggae Festival

Jamaica isn’t the only place in the Caribbean that loves to celebrate Reggae music. Here in Barbados, we’ve been holding an annual Reggae Festival since 2005. The week-long event, held every April, is popular with Barbadians and visitors and attracts over 25,000 spectators who flock to see some of the amazing performers in concert.

The festival runs four events, each held at different locations, and showcases different styles of reggae music, including vintage, modern and Bajan reggae. In the past, artists such as Buju Banton, Sizzla, Anthony B and Admiral Tibbett have performed at the festival.

Celtic Music Festival

With Scotland, Wales and Ireland being 4,000 miles away, a Celtic music festival is not what most people would expect to find on a tropical island. However, many of the country’s inhabitants share a Celtic heritage, with their ancestors having settled here, some of them forcibly, during the long centuries of British rule.

Over recent decades this cultural legacy has seen a resurrection in the form of the Barbados Celtic Festival, which now attracts well-known performers from Ireland, the UK and North America. Taking place at the Barbados Yacht Club, expect everything from ballads to bagpipes and fiddles to folk music. You may even get to sample a Bajan haggis, though it’s a tough decision whether to wash it down with Scotch Whisky, Irish Whiskey or Bajan Rum.

The festival has featured a long list of great folk musicians, including Hamish Stuart (Average White Band), Eddi Reader (Fairground Attraction), Sandra Macbeth, the Peatbog Faeries and the Riddell Fiddles, just to name a few. The festival is held in the last week of May.

Soca and calypso events

Like Reggae, Soca and Calypso are music genres native to the Caribbean and where ever you go in Barbados, you’ll find local bars and venues hosting live bands playing this kind of music. The one place you are bound to hear lots of Soca and Calypso is at the annual Crop Over, Barbados’ biggest carnival, which celebrates the end of the sugar cane harvest. Here you’ll find bands taking part in carnival parades and competitions and playing in bars and in public spaces.

Summing up

Our passion for music, in all its rich varieties, means visitors to Barbados are in for a musical treat. You can indulge yourself at one of our fantastic festivals, enjoy live music at one of our clubs or bars, or just take in the rhythms and beats that you’ll hear everywhere you go on the island.

If visiting Barbados is on your playlist, the magnificent apartments and villas here at the Royal Westmoreland are within easy reach of all the island’s best musical events.

•culled from
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